AA History

Culture Alcohol & Society Quarterly

Posted by Love and Service

Newsletter of Kirk/CAAS Collections at Brown
Vol. II, No. 8     July/August/September 2006

This is the eighth new issue of the CA&SQ since it was revived in October 2004. This issue reports on the editor’s research on the (Oxford Group)/Rowland Hazard III/Edwin T. T—-/F. Shepard Cornell/Cebra Q. G—-connection in AA’s founding. Following this is our new section on other archives (this being the fourth installment, dealing with sections of the Hazard Family Papers at the Rhode Island Historical Society), and then our continuing series of “Washingtonian Notes and Queries.” This issue’s “Notes and Queries” (No. 12) provides some additional information (and queries) on Francis Gallagher, one of the 1841 Incorporators of the Washingtonian Temperance Society of Baltimore, from the files of the Maryland Historical Society. The editor intends to put together much of the material from these “Notes and Queries” into an article on the Washingtonian Temperance Society of Baltimore, perhaps for the Maryland Historical Magazine. Finally, we include an inventory of the John Zug (1818-1843) Archives at the University of Maryland—John Zug being the author of The Foundation, Progress and Principles of the Washington Temperance Society of Baltimore (1842). Next issue of this newsletter (III, 1) will again see contributions on current work at Brown, plans for future work, and results of past work from the collections and by those on the KirkWorks listserv (including a fifth Note on materials elsewhere available). All those who receive this are invited to contribute notes and work in progress. – Jared Lobdell, September 30, 2006


After reading the classic accounts of “bringing the message to Ebby” in AA literature, I find some questions have remained in my mind. The “messengers” are said to have been Cebra G., Shep Cornell, Rowland Hazard, who were in Vermont in 1934, as Oxford Group members, when Ebby was haled into court as the result of one (or several) of his drunken escapades. Now Cebra and Shep were identified by Bill W. as alcoholics, and for them he used the AA system of nomenclature in his reminiscences, but while there are definite indications that Cebra’s drinking was a matter of considerable concern to his parents and to his son, and he was eventually involved in AA in France, the evidence for any alcoholism in Shep Cornell is much less clear. What is also uncertain is the connection between Cebra and Shep, and previous connection of either (but particularly of Shep) with Ebby. And it is uncertain where Rowland fits in.

Rowland Hazard III (1881-1945) had visited Carl Jung in Switzerland for alcoholism treatment in 1926 and briefly again in 1928. He had become active in the Oxford Group thereafter and was active while cleaning up (himself and the property) at his family’s Sugarbush Farm near Bennington and Manchester in Vermont in 1934. It may not be significant, but Francis Shepard Cornell was descended from James Hazard, who left Rhode Island for New York City around the time of the French and Indian War (1754-63). In fact, one part of that line of the Hazard family, represented now by Geoffrey Cornell Hazard (Jr.) and Geoffrey Cornell Hazard III, shows several Cornell-Hazard interlinkages. The Hazard family has over the years had about as strong family feeling as any family with which I am acquainted – which could (but of course need not) have had something to do with any connection between Rowland Hazard and Shep Cornell, at least once they met.

Cebra Quackenbush G. (1898-1979) was from Bennington, the son of Judge Collins Millard G. (1872-1954). He attended Williams College for a year before enlisting in the Army in World War I, later read law in his father’s office, attended Columbia in NYC in 1924, acted on Broadway 1924-27, went back to Vermont, served as State’s Attorney in the Bennington district 1928-1932, then State Senator 1933- 1935. He married five times, the last time to Lucette Caron Culbert in France, where he lived from 1954 till his death on January 1, 1979, at the age of 80. He met Lucette in the early 1920s through her brother Claude Caron, whose daughter Leslie (b. 1931) may be named after Leslie Cornell (I have written Claude’s nephew, Lucette’s son, Frédéric [Ted] Culbert, on this).

In one of his Broadway stints, Cebe G. acted with Elmer Cornell, a cousin of Shep’s and brother of actress Leslie Cornell. Cebe’s son Jack Y. C. G., from his third marriage, was a year behind me at Yale (both of us in Saybrook College) and I’ve been in touch with him. Cebe’s brother Van Vechten Breese G. (b. 1906), Brown 1929, still lives in Bennington. [Note: I hope to be given access to the transcript of a recording Bill W. made of Cebra’s reminiscences in 1954, so I am using the proper AA form of reference to Cebra G.]

The name Cebra reputedly goes back in the Quackenbush (Cebe’s mother’s) family to “El Cebra” (true name and surname unknown), a patriot in the Dutch War for Independence (1567-1609), who was whipped by the Spaniards (“given stripes”) so that he was said to have looked like a zebra (“Cebra”). The surname Cebra appears on Long Island before the American Revolution, and it may have entered the Quackenbush family from the Cebra family, rather than directly in the days of the House of Orange-Nassau.

Cebra G.’s first marriage was in 1921 at St Paul’s Episcopal Church in Troy NY to Carolyn Caldwell of Troy, daughter of James Henry Caldwell, President of the Troy Trust Company. She was a 1917 graduate of the Misses Masters’ School at Dobbs Ferry. Cebra is described as a graduate of the Westminster School and of Williams College. His second marriage of which I have a record (but I believe it was his third marriage) was in 1936 to Mary Ormsby Sutton of 1170 Fifth Avenue in New York (residence of her aunt, Edna Sutton) and of Pittsburgh (residence of her father J. Blair Sutton). Her mother, Mary Phillips Sutton, was no longer alive. Mary graduated from the Fermata School in Aiken, South Carolina, in 1931 and from Sarah Lawrence in 1933. She was presented to society at a dinner dance at the Allegheny Country Club in Pittsburgh in December 1933, by her father and stepmother. The G.- Sutton wedding was conducted by Justice of the Peace Leo Mintzer in Harrison NY, with Mr. and Mrs. Elwood Kemp of New York City as the witnesses. Again, Cebra is described as a graduate of Westminster and Williams. He is also described as having been a State Senator in Vermont 1933-35.

Mary Ormsby Sutton (G.) Moore was born July 16, 1915, and died in Sewickley PA on October 13, 2001. She was the mother of John (Jack) Yates Cebra G., Yale ’62, Cebra’s son. They were divorced in the later 1940s. On August 15, 1950, died in Southampton, Long Island, New York, the former Barbara Corlies G., daughter of the late Arthur and Maude Robinson Corlies and (fourth) wife of Cebra G. She was born in 1909/1910 and had previously been married to Allen Hall. I have been unable to track down the second marriage, though I note that Cebe G’s acting career seems to have ended around 1927, with The Tightwad, as did (at least for some time) the acting careers of two of the three actresses in The Tightwad. Lucile Nikolas (later Joan Kenyon) continued her career, but Leah Winslow and Marie Carroll did not. However, when my parents knew Marie Carroll in 1929, she was living unmarried (so far as I know) in Queens. But I will track this down, though it may be of little or no importance here.

Cebra served up to the rank of Lt. Commander in the U.S.N. in World War II, used his G. I. Bill to go to Columbia School of General Studies and then the Columbia Graduate School, receiving his B.A. and then at least his M.A. in Classics. From 1946 to 1951 he was an Instructor in Classical Studies (Humanities) in Columbia School of General Studies. After his fourth wife died, he reopened his acquaintance with Lucette Caron (Culbert), whom he had met in France around 1920-21. After 1954 he lived the rest of his life in France, where his son Jack visited him from time to time. Jack (b. 1940) recalls that his father lived a while in Pownal on Clermont Avenue, and even in his fifties, his parents (who died in 1954 and 1955) would still smell his breath and wait up for him if he stayed with them. He thinks his father was drinking during the brief fourth marriage. When his father was in this country and Jack was about 13 or 14, Jack asked his father to play “ball” – to play “catch” – and his father did, even though he had a hangover. Eventually he had to lie down, and Jack asked him if it would help if he placed wet washcloths over his forehead, which he did. Eventually his father asked Jack, “What do you think of your old man?” and Jack answered, “I just think you’re sick, Dad” – and whatever he meant, his father told him afterward that his reply was a major step on his father’s road to sobriety.

When Jack’s parents’ marriage (Cebra’s third) was breaking up after World War II, Jack, as a young boy, tried to mediate between them whenever they had an argument – “I tried to get them back together” – and when the marriage failed his mother went back to Pittsburgh, where she was brought up. His father renewed an acquaintance he had made in France thirty years before – he had met Lucette Caron (Culbert) while fishing in Saumur with his friend and her brother Claude Caron for champagne bottles. I believe, after his fourth wife died, Cebe went over to France, looked Lucette up, found she was a widow, asked her when she would marry him, she said “Dimanche!” and they went to Mont St Michel. He came back to the States thereafter, and then returned to France for the last quarter- century of his life.

He told Jack that his desire for alcohol wasn’t a thirst, “it was a hunger.” When in France, he went to a nunnery, for their “cure” – which involved giving him as much wine as he wanted (up to six bottles a day), to keep him off “alcohol.” It was at this point he decided he didn’t want to die drunk in an alcoholic ward and put his mind to being sober. “You see,” Jack told me, “he would be a pretty terrific success at whatever he tried – actor, attorney, state senator, soldier and sailor, scholar and college teacher – and then he’d get bored with it. He could have been a U.S. Senator if he’d set his mind to it, but he never did.” But he set his mind to being sober, and after spending time with Bill W. in 1954, he stayed sober till his death on New Year’s Day 1979. His pictures as an undergraduate at Williams show a startlingly handsome man. I have not seen photographs of him later in life.

Francis Shepard Cornell (1899-1985), never (so far as I know) a member of AA, was from New Jersey and then Long Island and attended Lehigh University, after enlisting in World War I. He was married several times, the first time to (Helen) Leigh Best, by whom he had three children, a son Leigh Best Cornell, born 1924 (or 1926), a daughter Leslie Cornell, b. 1927 (or 1928), now Leslie Cornell Larson, living in Annapolis MD, and a son Robert Shepard Cornell, b. 1930, now living in Troy OH. Bob Cornell worked for a number of years for A. O. Smith, his father’s firm in Milwaukee, though his parents were divorced shortly after his birth. Leigh Best Cornell enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1943 after three years of secondary education: he died in Massachusetts at the age of 49 (?) in 1974 in a VA facility.

Shep Cornell’s first marriage was an- nounced in the New York Times as follows: “Special to the New York Times, Ormond Beach, Fla., Feb. 28 – ‘Miss Helen Leigh Best, daughter of Leigh Best of 30 East 60th Street, New York, former Vice-President of the American Locomotive Company and Francis Shepard Cornell, also of New York, were married in St. James’s Church here this afternoon. The Rev. J. M. McGrath officiated. Miss Best’s father, Frank Hedley, President of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Charles R. Elliott and a few other intimate friends witnessed the ceremony.’”

Shep Cornell’s second marriage was to Nathalie Lee Laimbeer in New York in 1933 at the home of Richard Whitney, sometime President of the New York Stock Exchange and later convict. The ceremony was conducted by the Rev. Professor Erdman Harris, who was active in the cause of First Century Christianity as a Princeton alumnus at the time of the First Century Christian Fellowship revival at Princeton in 1925, supporter of Frank Buchman, and much later Headmaster of Shadyside Academy in Pittsburgh, at the time Sam Shoemaker was called to Calvary Church, Pittsburgh. Here’s the Times notice:

“The marriage of Miss Nathalie Lee Laimbeer to F. Shepard Cornell took place yesterday afternoon at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Richard Whitney, 115 East 73rd Street. Only near relatives and a few close friends were present at the ceremony, performed by the Rev. Erdman Harris, associate professor at the Union Theological Seminary. The bride is the elder daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. William Laimbeer and sister of Mrs. John R. Fell, Jr., and George M. Laimbeer. She is a granddaughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Spotswood Schenck and a great-granddaughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Matthew Morgan of this city. In the absence of her brother, who is on his wedding trip, the bride was given in marriage by her guardian, Lewis Cass Ledyard … Mr. Cornell is the son of the late Mr. and Mrs. George B. Cornell and the brother of Mrs. James B. Tailer. E Rayne Herzog was his best man. After the ceremony, there was a small reception. Mr. Cornell and his bride will sail tomorrow for Bermuda and on their return will live in this city.” (Lewis Cass Ledyard – first Senior, then Junior – was the executor for the estate of Harry Payne Whitney in 1927.) This does not mention that her mother, Nathalie Schenck Laimbeer (d. 1929), was one of the first female bank executives at Chase National Bank.

In 1943 Shep Cornell was married to Lucile Frazier (1909-2000). This marriage endured until his death in Charlottesville VA in 1985. Here is his death notice and obituary from the Charlottesville Daily Progress (September 16, 1985):

“An Albemarle County man who had been chief operating officer of the A. O. Smith Corp. died of a heart attack Saturday night while driving home from the University of Virginia- VMI football game at Scott Stadium. Albemarle County police said Francis S. Cornell, 86, a retired Colonel with the U.S. Air Force, died moments before his 1983 Buick ran off of West Leigh Drive at 9:13 p.m., and struck a tree. Authorities said Lucile Cornell, Cornell’s wife, grabbed and turned the steering wheel of the car to avoid oncoming traffic. Mrs. Cornell suffered minor injuries in the crash and was treated and released at UVa Hospital.

“Cornell, a resident of West Leigh Drive, was serving on the board of directors of Figgie International, a Richmond-based corporation, and had served as the chief operating officer of A. O. Smith Corp. after his retirement from the Air Force. The Smith Corporation produced goods worth more than $350 million annually in eleven states and employed more than 13,000 persons while Cornell was its chief operating officer.

“Cornell had been co-chairman of the industrial gifts division of the Greater Marquette University program that raised more than $15 million. He also was a past director of the Marquette Medical School, member of the council of the Graduate School at the University of Chicago, and was active in many business and civic organizations. He was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree by Carroll College for his civic service, and was a graduate of Lehigh University, with a degree in metallurgy.

“Locally, Cornell was a member of St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Ivy, the Farmington Country Club, Redlands Club, and the Virginia Student Aid Foundation. He is survived by his wife, two children, seven grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren.”

But this, of course, was far into the future in the days of Shep Cornell in and before the Oxford Group. In 1930 Shep and (Helen) Leigh Cornell lived in Greenwich CT. In the 1930s, with his second marriage, Shep was in NYC, and indeed in 1940 ran for Congress from NY’s 22nd District (Upper Manhattan/Harlem), losing to the (white) Democrat who four years later was replaced by Adam Clayton Powell. In 1943 (officially) and until 1949 Shep was in Milwaukee, as executive assistant to the president of A. O. Smith, but in fact he was a stateside Lt. Col. (USAAF) 1943-46. In 1949-53 he was in Kankakee, Illinois, with a division of A. O. Smith, and then back to Milwaukee as A. O. Smith’s executive vice president until his retirement in 1964.

While he was in Milwaukee, my father went to Madison to be Director of Stock Investments for the State of Wisconsin Investment Board, and while visiting there I became associated with Insight & Outlook, the magazine of the University of Wisconsin Conservative Club. A. O. Smith was a corporate sponsor of (and advertiser in) Insight & Outlook, and the person responsible was Mr. Cornell. At that time his Commencement Address at Carroll College (I think in 1959), “A Matter of Responsibility,” was available as a pamphlet there and elsewhere in Conservative circles, but I no longer have a copy and have been unable to track one down. Even his friend Bill Grede’s papers at Madison are missing any of his copies, and there are none at Carroll. He was a strong defender of the free- enterprise system (as, I believe, was the Oxford Group generally).

When he became associated with Figgie International (which owned American-La France, the fire equipment manufacturer), he began to spread the hook-and-ladder gospel to his friends in the Wisconsin business community – so much so that I recall thinking American-La France was a Wisconsin company. I believe the Wisconsin Investment Board bought Figgie shares, and I have a picture in my mind, whether

real (from a Milwaukee Circus Parade) or imagined (from my father’s conversation) of Mr. Cornell driving a classic American-La France “fire engine” in the Parade. Real or imagined, it was in tune with his tremendous enthusiasms. (I recall hearing how, when A. O. Smith and Dow Chemical formed a joint venture, and were seeking a name, Mr. Cornell said there was but one name possible: “Wall Street has Dow-Jones – we’ll have Dow-Smith.”

When he came to Charlottesville, or rather to Esmont, in southernmost Albermarle County, Virginia, actually before retirement from Smith in August of 1964, he immediately set up a feeder calf operation at Esmont House. A reporter for the Daily Progress interviewed Mr. and Mrs. Cornell (Daily Progress, September 24, 1964): “Were the Cornells country dwellers and livestock handlers in Wisconsin? Neither had ever lived on a farm or raised cattle before, Mrs. Cornell said. And how did they come to settle in Albemarle County? The distaff half of the partnership said her husband, as a member of the Board of Directors of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, made frequent trips to Washington, D.C. Mrs. Cornell usually accompanied him. Business attended to, the couple would come to the Farmington Country Club for golf and relaxation and thus they came to know Charlottesville and Albemarle County.”

The Esmont operation was still going in March 1966 (Daily Progress, March 25, 1966, “Locating Industry Is 2-Way Street [Says Retired Esmont Industrialist]” – reporting on a speech by Francis S. Cornell, “who played an important part in bringing the A. O. Smith Corporation plant to Charlottesville in 1964”). When I knew Esmont House in the 1970s it was the home of Roger Lea MacBride, erstwhile Libertarian elector (1972) and candidate (1976). One of the characteristics that appears to link Cebe, Shep, Bill W., Rowland, and possibly even Ebby is tremendous initial enthusiasm as well as wide range of interests – until Rowland burned out (and suffered the shock of his son’s death in World War II), until Cebe settled down with his Lucette, until Bill concentrated on AA (but that didn’t stop him from embracing Niacin and experimenting with LSD – both of which were, however, connected with the same fight against alcoholism), until Ebby burned out completely – but Shep kept on, enthusiastic to the last. (If you look at the picture in the Daily Progress in 1966, you will, by the way, see his highly polished shoes with his country clothes: I think it charac- teristic.)

There is very little to be added to the account of Ebby’s family in Mel B.’s Ebby (Hazelden), but I have found at least one trip to NYC in 1926, though it suggests far more parochial social connections than those of Cebe or Shep. He was best man at the wedding of a Roman Catholic friend from Albany at St. Patrick’s Cathedral (somewhat to my surprise it was lawful under canon law for a Protestant to be best man at a Roman Catholic wedding, but not then for a Roman Catholic to be best man at a Protestant wedding). I await access to the transcript of Cebe’s reminiscence to Bill W. for further information on connections between and among those who “brought the message” – but possibly we are beginning to get a better idea of the dynamics of the process and certainly of Cebe and Shep. And I hope to find out more of the connections between Shep Cornell and his distant cousin Rowland Hazard. I have a hazy recollection that there was a Hazard connection with the American Locomotive Company (ALCO), of which Leigh Best had been Vice-President. Certainly there were Hazard interests in interurban traction, which might produce a connection with Frank Hedley. (It may be noted, by the way, that Cebra’s cousin James Quackenbush was associated with Frank Hedley on the IRT, but I’m not sure which James and therefore how close a cousin.)



As noted in the first article, I have been unable to find any significant relevant collections of T. (Ebby’s family), Cornell, or G. Family Papers, but the Rhode Island Historical Society has a major collection of Hazard Family Papers. The papers listed here are from the Rowland Hazard II Papers, Rowland Hazard II Estate Papers, and the Rowland Third (Corporation) Papers at the RIHS. To them for the study of Rowland III (1881-1945) must be added especially materials in the Leonard Bacon Papers at the Beinecke Library at Yale. See Cora Finch, “Stellar Fire: Carl Jung, a New England Family, and the Risks of Anecdote.”


Sub-series 3: Mary P.B. Hazard (wife of Rowland II mother of T. P. and Rowland III)

The majority of these letters are from Mrs. Hazard’s son Thomas P. “Pierre” Hazard, with a few letters from Pierre to Mrs. Hazard’s sister-in- law Mary I. “Aunt Minnie” Merrill, also condolence letters on the death of Mr. Hazard (1918), and other scattered letters

Box 5, folder 36. 1898-1903, from Pierre; folder 37. 1904, from Pierre; folder 38. 1904-1907, from St. George’s School re Pierre; folder 39. 1905, from Pierre; folder 40. 1906, from Pierre; folder 41. 1907, from Pierre; folder 42. 1908, from Pierre; folder 43. 1908-1912, misc.; folder 44. 1909, from Pierre; folder 45. 1910, from Pierre

Box 6, folder 1. 1911, from Pierre; folder 2. 1912, from Pierre; folder 3. 1913, from Pierre; folder 4. 1914, from Pierre; folder 5. 1915, from Pierre; folder 6. 1916, from Pierre; folder 7. 1917, from Pierre; folder 8. 1917, misc.; folder 9. 1918, from Pierre Box 7, folder 1. 1918, January (condolences); folder 2. 1918, February (condolences); folder 3. 1918, March – May (condolences); folder 4. 1918, November – December, re Pierre’s influ- enza; folder 5. 1919, from Pierre; folder 6. 1919, misc.; folder 7. 1920, from Pierre; folder 8. 1920, misc.; folder 9. 1921, from Pierre; folder 10. 1921-1924, misc.; folder 11. 1922, from Pierre; folder 12. 1923, from Pierre; folder 13. 1924, from Pierre; folder 14. 1925, from Pierre; folder 15. 1926, from Pierre; folder 16. 1926- 1927, misc.; folder 17. 1929-1930, from Pierre; folder 18. 1931, from Pierre; folder 19. 1931- 1936, misc.; folder 20. 1932-1935 and undated, from Pierre’s children; folder 21. 1933-1936, from Pierre


Series 1: Corporate records

Box 1, folder 1. Articles of incorporation, 1917. Incorporation, by-laws, settlement agreement of estate of Rowland Hazard; folder 2. Minutes, 1917-1928. Includes directors and stockholders. Unbound.; folder 3. Minutes, 1928-1946. In- cludes directors and stockholders. Bound; folder 4. Minutes, 1946-1949. Incomplete draft min- utes; folder 5. Agreements, 1917-1950; folder 6. Deeds and leases – Narragansett, R.I., 1919- 1950; folder 7. Deeds and leases – South Kingstown, R.I., 1917-1951; folder 8. Deeds and leases – Miscellaneous, 1921-1931; folder 9. Stock certificates, 1918-1950; folder 10. Stock transfer book, 1917-1945

Series 2: Correspondence

Most of the correspondence from the 1920s was found arranged in alphabetical letter files. This arrangement has been retained for the most part. Most of the letters were to or from John R. Carpenter as secretary of the corporation. Some are from Rowland Hazard III’s files as president, and are noted as such. Very little correspondence was found for the 1930s.

Box 1, folder 11. 1917; folder 12. 1918-1919, Caroline E. (Newbold) Porter estate; folder 13. 1918-1919, miscellaneous; folder 14. 1920-1929, American Fish Culture; folder 15. 1920-1929, Anna Hazard Land Company; folder 16. 1920- 1929, Anthony’s Nose/Hudson River Bridge Co.; folder 17. 1920-1929, Anthony’s Nose, maps of (found with correspondence); folder 18. 1920- 1929, Bacon family; folder 19. 1926-1929, Bobolink House rentals; folder 20. 1920-1929, B, misc.; folder 21. 1920-1929, Cranston St. property; folder 22. 1920-1929, C, misc.; folder 23. 1920-1929, D-G, misc.; folder 24. 1920- 1929, Great Swamp land (from Rowland Hazard’s file); folder 25. 1920-1929, Great Swamp land; folder 26. 1920-1921, Hazard family; folder 27. 1922-1923, Hazard family; folder 28. 1923-1925, Hazard family; folder 29. 1925-1927, Hazard family; folder 30. 1920- 1929, Hazard Memorial Trust; folder 31. 1920- 1929, Hazard, Rowland (President’s correspon- dence); folder 32. 1920-1929, H-M, misc.; folder 33. 1920-1929, N-P, misc.; folder 34. 1920-1929, Narragansett Improvement Association; folder 35. 1920-1929, Narragansett Pier Railroad; folder 36. 1920-1929, New York, New Haven & Hartford RR – Fire claim, 1924; folder 37. 1920- 1929, Providence Dry Dock and Marine Rail- way; folder 38. 1920-1929, Providence Gas Company; folder 39. 1920-1929, Providence Warehouse Company; folder 40. 1920-1929, Providence Washington Insurance Company; folder 41. 1920-1929, R-S, misc.; folder 42. 1920-1929, T-Z, misc.; folder 43. 1920-1929, Tench & Terry; folder 44. 1922-1937, re Isaac P. Hazard; folder 45. 1930-1933 (no letters 1934); folder 46. 1935-1939; folder 47. 1937-1938, Great Swamp land (includes T.F. Green letter, June 23, 1938); folder 48. 1940-1942; folder 49. 1943-1945

Box 2, folder 1. 1945-1949, Great Swamp land; folder 2. 1946-1947; folder 3. 1948-1949; folder 4. 1950; folder 5. 1951-1953

Oversized volume 1. Letter book, 1916-1923

Oversized volume 2. Letter book, 1923-1929 Oversized volume 3. Letter book, 1930-1933 Series 3: Financial records
Series 3, 1: Account books

Box 2, folder 6. Ledger, 1917-1950; folder 7. Ledger, 1917-1940 (closed accounts); folder 8. Journal, 1917-1950; folder 9. Cash journal draft, 1917-1918

Series 3, 2: Bank accounts. In volumes. Ac- counts with R.I. Hospital Trust

Box 2, folder 10. 1917-1928; folder 11. 1928- 1934; folder 12. 1934-1940; folder 13. 1940- 1947; folder 14. 1948-1950

Series 3, 3: Balance sheets. Includes annual balance sheets and typed summaries

Box 2, folder 15. 1917-1938, 1945-1947 Series 3, 4: Receipts

Incomplete files of receipted bills. Originally in alphabetical subject files; this order is main- tained to some extent.

Box 2, folder 16. 1917-1922, casual labor; folder 17. 1917-1922, Hazard Memorial Trust; folder 18. 1917-1922, J.C. Tucker (construction & building supplies); folder 19. 1917-1922, A-N, misc.; folder 20. 1917-1922, O-Z, misc.; folder 21. 1923-1927; folder 22. 1939-1940

Series 3, 5: Taxes and reports

Box 2, folder 23. Affiliated corporations ques- tionnaires, 1917-1920; folder 24. Federal capital stock returns, 1918-1944; folder 25. Federal corporate reports, 1937-1945

Oversized Box 6, folder 5. Federal income tax returns, 1918-1950.

Box 3, folder 1. Rhode Island corporate reports, 1921-1945; folder 2. Rhode Island income tax returns, 1918-1939; folder 3. Rhode Island income tax returns, 1940-1950

Series 3, 6: Miscellaneous financial records

Box 3, folder 4. Dividend notices, 1923-1950; folder 5. Inventories, 1917-1948. Stocks held, real estate, notes due; folder 6. Payroll records, 1937-1951. Payroll summaries for treasurers, officers, etc.; folder 7. Receipt book, 1916-1919. For money collected, mostly rent and mortgages; folder 8. Treasurer’s statements, 1922-1945. Memoranda, statements of surplus

Series 4: Miscellaneous.

Box 3, folder 9 Complaint U.S. Spruce Produc- tion Corp et al, 1923-4; folder 10 Lists of securi- ties held by family 1917-1950; folder 11 Share of stock McKenna Process Co. Certification Caroline Hazard as executrix Rowland Hazard estate 1928, Sales slips IBM stock 1944, Memo- randum of “The Pines” 1922, Memorandum re “Bobolink House” 1943


Series 1: Correspondence

Box 1, folder 1. 1932-1936; folder 2. 1937-1938; folder 3. 1939-1949; folder 4. 1949 – dissolution

Series 2: Financial

Box 1 folder 5. Bank statements 1933-1936; folder 6. Checkbook, 8/1930 – 6/1931; folder 7. Checkbook, 6/1931 – 10/1932 “Account used primarily to pay R.H. personal bills while abroad in 1931;” folder 8. Financial statements 1932- 1936; folder 9. Journal 1933-1937; folder 10. Ledger, 1933-1937; folder 11. Office cash envelopes 1933-1948; folder 12. Office cash – Accounts with Mr. and Mrs. Rowland Hazard, 1933-1937; folder 13. Tax, California franchise tax returns 1932-1949; folder 14. Tax, Rhode Island state tax returns 1932-1948; folder 15. Tax, U.S. capital stock returns 1935-1945; folder 16. Tax – U.S. franchise tax returns 1933-1942

Oversized volume 1. Voucher and check register, 1931-1944

Oversized box 6, folder 6. Corporation tax returns, 1932-1949

Series 3: Property records

Box 1, folder 17. General – Insurance book, 1934-1936; folder 18. General – Insurance book, 1935-1939; folder 19. General – Insurance book, 1939-1949; folder 20. General – Insurance coverage, 1933-1937; folder 21. California – deeds and mortgages, 1927-1944; folder 22. California – Miscellaneous, 1938-1945; folder 23. New York – Correspondence 1930-1931; folder 24. New York – Correspondence, 1932- 1933; folder 25. New York – Deeds and agree- ments, 1927-1930; folder 26. New York – Re- ceipted bills, 1930-1933; folder 27. New York – What Cheer Realty Corp., 1932-1934; folder 28. Rhode Island – Deeds and appraisals, 1929-1938; folder 29. Vermont – Correspondence, 1931- 1938; folder 30. Vermont – Correspondence, 1939-1941; folder 31. Vermont – Correspon- dence, 1942; folder 32. Vermont – Correspon- dence, 1943-1946; folder 33. Vermont – Deeds and sale brochure, 1930-1943; folder 34. Ver- mont – Receipted bills, 1936-1942

Series 4: Miscellaneous

Box 1, folder 35. Annual reports, 1931-1948 (Delaware and Rhode Island); folder 36. Incor- poration and by-laws, 1930; folder 37. Payroll – Lloyd Mattison, 1937-1943 (see also Vermont correspondence)

Oversized box 6, folder 7. Inventory and assess- ment, undated; organizational chart, undated.


Francis Gallagher, the last of the Balti- more incorporators to be considered here, I believe (as noted in No. 11) to have been the Delegate from Baltimore in the Sessions of the Legislature of 1837, 1839, 1840, 1841 (March session), 1841, 1842, 1844, 1847 (unless a younger Francis Gallagher for whom the Maryland Historical Society has the dates 1816-1866 held that position in 1847). The mystery would lie partly in the absence of obituary in the Mary- land Historical Society Baltimore Sun index for any older Francis Gallagher. What we have for the putative younger Francis Gallagher is printed here.

“Death of Captain Francis Gallagher – Yesterday, Captain Francis Gallagher, a well- known citizen, especially in political circles, died of consumption at the residence of Mr. John B. O’Donnell, No. 144 German Street, in the 51st year of his age. The deceased, during several sessions of the General Assembly, some years ago, was a member of the lower house from Baltimore city, and was the originator of the movement which resulted in the abolishment of imprisonment for debt in this State. He was subsequently admitted as a member of the bar, and on the breaking out of the war he entered the United States service and became a Captain in Cole’s Cavalry, with some distinction. At the close of the war the deceased was appointed an Inspector of customs at this port, a position which he filled up to the time of his death. He was extensively known throughout the State as a political orator of more than ordinary ability, and leaves many friends among all parties. He was liberal in politics and generous in nature. His funeral will take place from the residence of Mr. O’Donnell at two o’clock tomorrow afternoon.” (Sun, December 11, 1866).

In the Sun for December 13, 1866, we find another notice (first of three paragraphs quoted). “Funeral of Francis Gallagher, Esq. – Tribute of Respect to his Memory – The funeral of this well-known and regretted citizen took place yesterday afternoon, at two o’clock, from the residence of John B. O’Donnell, Esq., No. 144 German st., and was largely attended by his relatives and friends. The Social Club of the Loyal Maryland Line, to the number of about sixty, under Gen. Andrew W. Denison, attended in a body, eight of the members acting as pallbearers. The deceased, bearing the appearance of much suffering, was encased in a handsome mahogany coffin, with silver ornaments. After the usual religious ceremonies at the house, the train proceeded to St. Peter’s Catholic church, on Poppleton street, where the Rev. Edward McColgan delivered a sermon. The cortege, under the charge of Mr. George Reilly, proceeded to the Cathedral cemetery, where, after proper religious exercises, the body was deposited.”

If there were two Francis Gallaghers, the elder Francis Gallagher would probably be the Francis Gallagher, cordwainer/shoemaker, rather than the Francis Gallagher, attorney, who is clearly this younger Francis Gallagher. (The F. or F. H. Gallagher of the Baltimore Directories was a Ferdinand H. Gallagher.) The letters in the Francis Gallagher collection in the Maryland Historical Society all date from Jan-Feb 1848, while Gallagher was seeking information from other jurisdictions concerning the abolishment of laws requiring the imprisonment of debtors. What we have on Francis Gallagher (or the two Francis Gallaghers) is roughly this: For an elder Francis Gallagher, born about 1786 (according to the Baltimore entries for Francis Gallagher in 1830 and Gallagher in 1840), we have one of his name serving as incorporator for the Cordwainers’ Association in 1833, a listing as shoemaker in 1848 (though that could belong to the younger, or another Francis Gallagher), and possibly the 1830s and earlier 1840s service as Delegate to the Assembly from Baltimore City. For a younger Francis Gallagher, we have no Census entries, service as a Delegate from Baltimore city in the later 1840s, later service in Cole’s Cavalry of the Maryland Loyal Line, and death aged fifty in December 1866. In the end, of course, it may not matter hugely which Francis Gallagher was Delegate in 1841, so long as the Incorporator was the Delegate, as seems likely. My guess is the younger was also a cordwainer/shoemaker like the elder, but was apprenticed to another (possibly the Patrick Gallagher in the 1845 and 1847-48 Directories) and living with that other in 1830 and 1840. (In the 1840 Census, Patrick G. Gallagher had three persons between twenty and thirty years of age living with him.) The younger Francis Gallagher would be the Francis Gallagher, shoemaker, in 1848, and the later lawyer. I would hazard a guess that the elder was the Francis Gallagher who served as Delegate in 1844, and the younger came into the Assembly in 1847, at that time beginning his work on the abolishment of imprisonment for debt. It may be worth noting that he was in touch with, among others, Congressman Andrew Johnson of Tennessee (D, later President), Senator William Allen of Ohio (D), Judge William D. Kelley of Philadelphia (later – 1861-90 – a Republican Congressman), former Congressman Ely Moore of New York (D), Senator Charles Atherton of New Hampshire (D), Congressman John Wentworth of Illinois (D, later Republican), Senator William Dayton of NJ (Whig, later Republican), Senator Daniel Webster of New Hampshire (Whig), former VP Richard M. Johnson of Kentucky (D), Senator James Ware Bradbury of Maine (D), Senator Arthur Bagby of Alabama (D), Congressman William Thompson of Iowa (D), Senator Albert Greene of Rhode Island (Whig).


There are other Francis Gallaghers in the Baltimore Directories, including a Sea Captain in 1829, carpenters, and others, but I think the presence of several Gallaghers of different names as cordwainers/shoemakers gives us a good clue here. My suggestion, by the way, is that the break between the two Francis Gallaghers occurs between the 1844 Session and the 1847 Session, but we still should find out if the Francis Gallagher b. ca 1786 is a good candidate as the elder Francis Gallagher. Research on other Cordwainer Incorporators may suggest the probable age of this Francis Gallagher. For their names – An Act to Incorporate the United Beneficial Society of Cordwainers of the city of Baltimore Feb.14 1834 WHEREAS, Richard Marley, Thomas Cafferty, James H. Carlile, James Porter, John Dohn, Francis Gallagher, James Cunningham, James Gawthorp, Thomas Johnson, Andrew McCleland, Nicholas Speaks, Charles H. Claiborn and others … have represented, that they have associated themselves together by the name of the United Beneficial Society of Cordwainers of the city of Baltimore, for works of benevolence and charity, under and subject to a constitution and by-laws, which have been found wholesome, and well calculated to promote the ends for which the society was first formed, provided an act of incorporation can be obtained from the General Assembly of Maryland, constituting them a body corporate, with a perpetual succession … AND WHEREAS, the facts set fourth in the said petition appear to be true, and the prayer thereof is reasonable and proper — Therefore … [the petition is granted].


Papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug


Title: Papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug Author/Creator: Zug, John and Margaret Hood Collection No: 90-489
Size: 1.50 linear feet (83 items)

Inclusive Dates: 1837-1851
Bulk Dates: 1838-1843
Repository: Archives and Manuscripts Depart- ment, University of Maryland Libraries, Hornbake Library, College Park, MD 20742. Tel: 301-405-9058, Fax: 301-314-2709,
Email: archivesum@umd.edu
Abstract: The papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug consist of correspondence and covers a broad range of subjects, including temperance, Christian behavior, child-rearing, and even antebellum southern society. Much of the correspondence is between Pennsylvania natives John Zug, a temperance speaker and minister, and Margaret Ann (Hood) Zug before and after their marriage in 1841. There is also correspondence between Zug and his friends and associates in the temperance movement. And, after Zug’s death and Margaret Zug’s remarriage sometime before 1846, there is extensive communication between Margaret and a cousin who moves from Pennsylvania to Richmond, Virginia, and reports her impressions of her new home and society. Important Information for Users of the Collection
Restrictions: There are no restricted files in this collection.
Preferred Citation: Papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries
Publication Rights: Photocopies of original materials may be provided for a fee and at the discretion of the curator. Please see our Duplication of Materials policy for more information. Queries regarding publication rights and copyright status of materials within this collection should be directed to the appropriate curator.

Historical Note

John Zug and Margaret Hood spent most of their lives in southern Pennsylvania. John Zug’s family lived in Carlisle in Cumberland County, while Margaret Hood evidently lived in several southern Pennsylvania towns, including Newville, Springfield, and Stoughstown in Cumberland County and York in York County. John Zug was an agent of the Colonization Society, an active speaker for the temperance movement, and an advocate of the Methodist Church, before entering Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania to study law. He graduated from Dickinson College in 1840. Later that year he relocated to Baltimore, Maryland, where he helped establish a private school and served as instructor. Margaret Hood remained in southern Pennsylvania until July 1841, when she married John Zug and joined him in Baltimore.

Life in Baltimore was not easy for the newly married couple. In August 1842, as Margaret recovered from the birth of their son Edgar, John departed for several months of travel to Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. He attempted to sell copies of a book he had written on a subject not disclosed in his letters [this would be The Foundation, Progress and Principles of the Washington Temperance Society of Baltimore (1842)]. The couple’s correspondence from this period indicates that they sold some of their furniture and personal belongings in an effort to reduce their debt. The Zugs moved back to southern Pennsylvania by September 1842, probably due to their deepening financial problems. John returned to his family’s farm to assist his father and practice law. Margaret and Edgar moved to Newville, where they probably stayed with her family. In early 1843, the couple still lived apart, although John planned to move his family into a new home in Carlisle in April.

John Zug’s health was a perennial concern for his family and friends. Immediately before his wedding in July 1841, he suffered a ruptured blood vessel in his lung. He believed that his illness was due to “frequent exposure in public speaking [for the temperance movement], particularly in the open air,” and he curtailed his excessive schedule of public addresses thereafter. In March 1843, Zug wrote to a friend that he had been ill since Christmas and that a recent convalescent trip to the country was unsuccessful. Zug’s efforts to move his family and to begin practicing law compromised his recuperation. Despite the assistance and care of family and friends, John Zug died during the latter half of 1843. Margaret Hood Zug remained in Carlisle with her young son after her husband’s death. She remarried in 1847.

Scope and Contents of Collection

The papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug consist of eighty letters, two poems, and a travel itinerary and health regimen that span the period 1837 to 1851, although the bulk of the material is dated 1838 to 1843. Correspondents include Dickinson College presidents John Price Durbin and Robert Emory; Thomas and Sarah Moore; Thomas Bowman; Fritz Alberti; B. H. Crever; Henry Welling; Samuel Zug; George Coffey; William Kelley; John Hoss; Richard Batler; and Bishop Waugh. Major topics include Dickinson College; the temperance movement; religion; courtship and marriage; early nineteenth century travel in the Mid-Atlantic region and further west; family issues; and African-Americans and abolition. The correspondents also discussed politics and the death of U. S. President William Henry Harrison; health and financial concerns; the Thanksgiving holiday; John Zug’s school in Baltimore; and conditions in southern Pennsylvania, Baltimore, and Richmond, Virginia.

Custodial History and Acquisition Information

The University of Maryland Libraries purchased the papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug from Carmen Valentino in 1990. The papers of John and Margaret Hood Zug have been organized as three series:

Series I: Correspondence, 1837-1851 (80 items)

This series contains eighty letters written to John and Margaret Hood Zug, arranged by recipient. The first of these groupings contains three letters John Zug wrote to Thomas Moore, a cousin of Margaret Hood Zug, between 1837 and 1841. Zug discussed his studies and graduation from Dickinson College, his courtship of Margaret Hood, the establishment of his school in Baltimore, the temperance movement, and his and Moore’s health. [I have requested permission to publish some of these letters – JCL.] The second grouping consists of a single letter John Zug wrote to Captain John Hoss in 1843. In it, Zug discussed his poor health and his plans to move his family into a new home and to begin the practice of law. [I have requested permission to publish this letter – JCL.]

Thirty-three letters written to Margaret Hood Zug by John Zug between 1838 and 1843 comprise the third grouping of correspondence. Major topics include their courtship and marriage, financial concerns, John Zug’s school and social life in Baltimore, travels on behalf of the Methodist Church and the Temperance Society, the condition of their health, family and friends, and their son Edgar.

The fourth grouping contains thirty-three letters written to John Zug between 1838 and 1843 by various correspondents, including Thomas Bowman and Fritz Alberti, former schoolmates from Dickinson College; his wife’s cousin Thomas Moore; his brother Samuel Zug; Bishop Waugh of the Methodist Church; and Dickinson College presidents John Price Durbin and Robert Emory, as well as other individuals. The correspondents touched on a wide variety of subjects including life at Dickinson College during and after Zug’s studies there, the active involvement of Zug and several of his friends in the temperance movement, and religion and the Methodist Church. In addition, issues such as courtship and marriage, early nineteenth century travel in the Mid-Atlantic region and further west, family issues, African-Americans and abolition, politics, the death of U.S. President William Henry Harrison, and health and financial concerns were addressed. The letters also described the Thanksgiving holiday, John Zug’s school in Baltimore, and conditions in southern Pennsylvania, Baltimore, and Richmond, Virginia. [I have also requested permission to publish several of these letters.]

The fifth grouping of correspondence consists of ten letters written to Margaret Hood Zug by her cousin Thomas Moore and his wife Sarah between 1841 and 1851. The correspondence alludes to the death of John Zug, although it is not directly addressed. On 5 February 1846, Sarah Moore wrote: There was a Methodist lady called here a few days ago to see Mrs. Zug, she heard I was looking for you and saw a lady dressed in black with me and concluded it was you, she used to know your husband and thought a great deal of him. Thomas Moore wrote the following to Margaret on April 5, 1849, soon after Sarah’s death: “In a few months it will be six years since the dearest friend I ever had of my own sex [John Zug] was laid in the lonely dwelling place.” In addition to spousal death, other topics addressed by the Moores include friends and family; life in Richmond, Virginia; health concerns; Margaret Zug’s remarriage in 1847; and religion.

Series II: Poetry, 1838 and undated (2 items)

This series consists of two love poems, both of which were probably written or copied by John Zug and sent to Margaret Hood. The first poem is dated 31 March 1838 and begins with the line: “’Twas on a bright and sunny day of March.” Attached to this poem are quotes about love clipped from books and other published sources. The second poem is not dated but is entitled “The Old Bachelor,” and the name “Miss M. A. Hood” is written on an outer flap. The materials are arranged chronologically with dated materials appearing first.

Series III: Travel, undated (1 item)

This series contains a sheet of paper listing the hot springs in the region, the traveling distance between them, and a daily “treatment” itinerary. The list probably belonged to John Zug and may relate to his convalescence after the serious illness he suffered in summer 1841.


Correspondence, 1837-1851 (80 items) Box 1 Folder 1 John Zug to Thomas Moore, 1837- 1841; Folder 2 John Zug to Captain John Hoss, 1843; Folder 3 John Zug to Margaret Hood Zug, 1838-1843; Folder 4 Correspondence received by John Zug, 1838-1843; Folder 5 Thomas and Sarah Moore to Margaret Hood Zug, 1841-1851. Poetry, 1838 and undated (2 items); Folder 6 Poetry — “’Twas on a bright and sunny day of March,” 1838; Folder 7 Poetry — “The Old Bachelor;” Folder 8 Travel and treatment itiner- ary, undated

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